Wednesday, August 14, 2019

The Theoretical Background Upon Behavior Modification Techniques

The theoretical background upon behavior modification techniques Abstract Behavior modification is a technique about the change in undesired behavior and enhancing desired behavior. In this paper is shown the history of this technique, when it dates from, a theoretical background and the steps of the modification, in order to be successful and thriving. This paper will show one of the first experiments with the behavior modification and how they helped this behavior technique to evolve, so to be helpful for therapeutic purposes as well as for parental purposes. Table of contents: 1. Introduction†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 2. History of behavior modification†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 2 3. Principles of behavior modification†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 4. Techniques of behavior modification †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3 5. Steps of behavior modification†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 4 6. Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦. 4 7. Reference list†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦. 5 1. Introduction Behavior modification is a technique concerning the change in the undesired behavior and enhancing desired behavior. It is an approach that aims to modify the behavior of a pe rson through the use of positive or negative reinforcement and punishment.Rewards such as approval, cloth, food or even money can support and strengthen the desired behavior and improve its regularity and occurrence. Behavior modification technique is used in many different situations, varying from the performance of children in their classroom, in their home or in the playground to the actions of adult prison inmates or people who need therapeutic treatment. For instance, if a child is doing her or his homework, this is a desired and wanted behavior. A teacher can support this kind of activity by providing the child with praise or a star on a chart to encourage the child to repeat this behavior.In the next lesson the kid has done the homework in order to get another star. This is a behavior modification. 2. History of behavior modification The theoretical background of behavior modification technique dates since 1911 when this term is used for the first time by Edward Thorndike. Th e behavior modification can also be traced to lab research in 1800's and 1900's. The greater part of this research was done through experimenting with animals. However, this technique is profoundly and intensely developed by American behaviorist Burrhus Frederic Skinner.He developed the idea of operant conditioning, which is the concept that the behavior of a person or an animal can be shaped by reinforcement or lack of one. (Skinner, B. F, 1938). Nowadays, these notions are used by parents and mental health professionals. Behaviorists strongly believe that people are a creation of their life experience with the ability to manage their behavior and study new once. Many routine programs are about reducing cholesterol, blood pressure or weight by using behavior modification techniques as a means of thoroughly modifying eating habits.In another words, behavior modification technique is used to replace undesirable behavior with desirable once. It is the process of modifying a person's r eaction to different stimuli. 3. Principles of behavior modification In the behavior modification technique there are two main principles and they are reinforcement and punishment; both can be either positive or negative. The reinforcement fortifies the behavior. It is something that a person obtains as a result of their behavior that makes it more possible to do it again in the future. A positive reinforcement is about encouraging desirable behaviors through a technique of rewards.In the behavior therapy, therapists often make contracts with their patients and clients in order to establish the terms of the reward system. A negative reinforcement illustrates wanted behavior which is rewarded with the elimination of a negative stimulus. On the other hand, the punishment lessens the behavior. It happens when a person obtain a consequence that they do not desire as an outcome of their behavior. A positive one takes place when unwanted behavior results in the addition of a negative stim ulus. A negative punishment takes place when unwanted behavior results in the removal of an enjoyable and satisfying motivation.B. F. Skinner display positive and negative reinforcement. He put a rat in a box. In this box there was a lever and when it was pushed it released food. The rat quickly understands that every time he pushed the lever he will receive food. In this case the positive reinforcement of receiving food made the rat to push the lever and so it has lever pushing behavior. In Skinner's other example, he put the rat in a different box with a lever. In this box there was an electric current. The rat would push the lever, which immediately turned off the electric current.So, the rat learned to push it in order to stop the current. This behavior was reinforced by avoiding negative circumstances. According to B. F. Skinner the punishment have to be used only as a last option. He thought so, because he believed that people will try harder for a prize than through fear of p unishment, so he stated that the positive reinforcement is more effective than the other methods. He also had the notion that the punishment did not result in the long run for the behavior modification, he believed that the punishment had only brief results. 4 . Techniques of behavior modificationIn the behavior modification there are three techniques which help to remodel negative thoughts or actions into positive ones and they are systematic desensitization, aversion and token economy. Systematic desensitization technique aid with lessen the fear associated with certain stimuli. The experience to the fear-producing stimuli, while focusing on easing techniques in the long run leads to the fear-inducing stimuli resulting in the easing response, rather than fear. Aversion technique support breaking severe or just troublesome habits through associating aversive stimuli to the unwanted habits.In the end, the unwanted habits become related with the negative consequence and the behavior is diminished. The most effective behavior modification technique is the token economy, mainly with children. With this technique a wanted behavior results in the reward of a token -for instance a star or a poker chip; on the other hand unwanted behavior result in taking away the token. When children gain a specific number of tokens, they get a meaningful item, opportunity or some kind of benefit in exchange for the tokens.Ultimately, the rewarding of tokens decreases the unwanted behavior on their own. 5. Steps of behavior modification The behavior modification technique is accessible for everyone – individuals, families and ill people and they all have to follow some steps in order the behavior modification to be successful. The steps are related with identification, education, environmental changes, encouragement and discouragement. The identification of a problem may be easy when an adult choose to stop smoking, or difficult when a student often interrupt the teacher in c lass.Behavior modification techniques involve an educational part to begin the wanted changes. For instance, a teacher might explain to a child in positive ways to express irritation with discussion, rather than throwing objects. Negative behaviors often take place in relation to exact circumstances. For instance, an overeater might always eat when watching TV or a smoker might always smoke when drinking coffee. Environmental changes diminish the chances for the negative behaviors to take place. When the proper behavior occurs, the individual obtain positive reinforcement.For example, a child who does her or his homework will be left to play games or extra hour on the playground. Negative reinforcement give unwanted consequences for keeping on the negative behavior. For instance, extra chores might be the consequence for a teenager acting disrespectfully at home. 6. Conclusion A behavior modification technique has the potential to help many people as well as everyday behaviors and c ircumstances and also to aid in many disorders. This technique has proved as successful many different treatments.For instance, it has helped with children with autism, conduct disorders, many different phobias and addictions; it also has helped in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as well as in parenting and classroom settings. In conclusion to be thriving it has to be followed five very important steps for successful behavior modification technique. First of all it has to be determining the ways for helping diminishing the problems. Secondly, it has to be developing a program designed to lessen the unwanted behavior and make stronger the wanted behavior.Third, it has to be carry out the program. Fourth, it has to be keep objective records of progress. And fifth it has to be supervising the program and results and modify as necessary. 7. Reference list †¢Fernandez, Cr. (2010) Examples of Behavior Modification Techniques Available from: http://www. lives trong. com/article/181974-examples-of-behavior-modification-techniques/ [Accessed November 2012] †¢Labrador, Fr. (2004) Skinner and the Rise of Behavior Modification and Behavior Therapy Available from: http://www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pubmed/15581239 Accessed [November 2012] †¢Martinez, El. 2010) Types of Behavior Modification Available from: http://www. livestrong. com/article/123748-types-behavior-modification/ Accessed [November 2012] †¢Nayab, N (2011) Examples of Behavior Modification Approaches That Really Work Available from: http://www. brighthub. com/office/human resources/articles/107630. aspx [Accessed November 2012] †¢Steeves, J. (2012) A Review of Different Behavior Modification Strategies Designed to Reduce Sedentary Screen Behaviors in Children Available from: http://www. hindawi. com/journals/jobes/2012/379215/ Accessed [November 2012]

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